### Post by The Astronomer on Mar 31, 2017 6:32:38 GMT

__FUTURE ROCKETS:__

FUSION/ANTIMATTER OVERHAULFUSION/ANTIMATTER OVERHAUL

__(2 Jul 2017)__**2017 Jun 11**

+ Added 4p and DD reactions

+ Added antimatter reactions

+ Added monopropellant deuterium (explosive!)

+ Added basic antimatter components (electron, positron, proton and antiproton)

o No longer requires separate versions of deuterium for each bipropellant reaction

- Gamma rays removed from equation

**2017 Jul 02**

+ Added metallic hydrogen (explosive!)

**2018 Feb 10**

+ Added metastable helium (explosive!)

ChemicalReactions.txt

`ChemicalReaction Metallic Hydrogen Reaction`

Reactants Metallic Hydrogen

ReactantCounts 2

Products Hydrogen

ProductCounts 1

ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 436

AutoignitionTemperature_K 1000

CharacteristicLength_m .889

ChemicalReaction Metastable Helium

Reactants Metastable Helium

ReactantCounts 1

Products Exhaust Helium

ProductCounts 1

ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

AutoignitionTemperature_K 600

CharacteristicLength_m 1

ChemicalReaction Fusion proton-proton chain reaction

Reactants Proton (Fusion Reactant Monopropellant)

ReactantCounts 4

Products Helium

ProductCounts 1

ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 1000000000

AutoignitionTemperature_K 232100000

CharacteristicLength_m 50

ChemicalReaction Fusion Deuterium Deuterium

Reactants Deuterium (Fusion Reactant Monopropellant)

ReactantCounts 2

Products Proton (Product) Monatomic Tritium

ProductCounts 1 1

ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 4824266

AutoignitionTemperature_K 153000000

CharacteristicLength_m 50

ChemicalReaction Fusion Deuterium Tritium

Reactants Deuterium (Fusion Reactant) Tritium (Fusion Reactant)

ReactantCounts 1 1

Products Helium

ProductCounts 1

ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 4824266

AutoignitionTemperature_K 153000000

CharacteristicLength_m 50

ChemicalReaction Fusion Deuterium Helium-3

Reactants Deuterium (Fusion Reactant) Helium-3 (Fusion Reactant)

ReactantCounts 1 1

Products Proton (Product) Helium

ProductCounts 1 1

ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 19297066

AutoignitionTemperature_K 232100000

CharacteristicLength_m 50

ChemicalReaction Fusion proton Boron-11

Reactants Proton (Fusion Reactant) Boron-11 (Fusion Reactant)

ReactantCounts 1 1

Products Helium

ProductCounts 3

ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 239262804

AutoignitionTemperature_K 1320000000

CharacteristicLength_m 50

ChemicalReaction Matter-Antimatter Proton Antiproton

Reactants Proton (Antimatter Reactant) Antiproton (Antimatter Reactant)

ReactantCounts 1 1

Products Electron (Product) Positron (Product)

ProductCounts 1 1

ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

AutoignitionTemperature_K 1000000000

CharacteristicLength_m 50

Ceramics.txt

`Material Shielded Superconducting Magnetic Nozzle`

Elements Nb Sn W He N Na Al C

ElementCount 3 1 6 10 7 5 5 3

Density_kg__m3 4500

YieldStrength_MPa 1000000

Cost_c__kg 300

UltimateTensileStrength_MPa 1000000

YoungsModulus_GPa 410

ShearModulus_GPa 161

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 500

MeltingPoint_K 500000000000

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 100000

ThermalExpansion__K 1e-10

Resistivity_Ohm_m 1e-10

RefractiveIndex Tungsten

RoughnessCoefficient .9

Elements.txt

`Element Electron`

Symbol e-

AtomicMass 1

AtomicNumber 1

MolarMass_g__mol 0.00055

IsANonmetal true

FirstIonizationEnergy_kJ__mol 1312.0

MicroscopicThermalNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b .294

MicroscopicThermalNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 28.966

MicroscopicFastNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b 3.96e-5

MicroscopicFastNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 3.99

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralCaptureCrossSection_b .149

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralScatteringCrossSection_b 240.23

SolarAbundance 4e10

Emission Hydrogen

Element Positron

Symbol e+

AtomicMass 1

AtomicNumber 1

MolarMass_g__mol 0.00055

IsANonmetal true

FirstIonizationEnergy_kJ__mol 1312.0

MicroscopicThermalNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b .294

MicroscopicThermalNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 28.966

MicroscopicFastNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b 3.96e-5

MicroscopicFastNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 3.99

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralCaptureCrossSection_b .149

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralScatteringCrossSection_b 240.23

SolarAbundance 5e-2

Emission Hydrogen

Element Proton

Symbol p+

AtomicMass 1

AtomicNumber 1

MolarMass_g__mol 1.0073

IsANonmetal true

FirstIonizationEnergy_kJ__mol 1312.0

MicroscopicThermalNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b .294

MicroscopicThermalNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 28.966

MicroscopicFastNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b 3.96e-5

MicroscopicFastNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 3.99

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralCaptureCrossSection_b .149

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralScatteringCrossSection_b 240.23

SolarAbundance 4e10

Emission Hydrogen

Element Antiproton

Symbol p-

AtomicMass 1

AtomicNumber 1

MolarMass_g__mol 1.0073

IsANonmetal true

FirstIonizationEnergy_kJ__mol 1312.0

MicroscopicThermalNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b .294

MicroscopicThermalNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 28.966

MicroscopicFastNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b 3.96e-5

MicroscopicFastNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 3.99

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralCaptureCrossSection_b .149

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralScatteringCrossSection_b 240.23

SolarAbundance 5e-2

Emission Hydrogen

Element Antihydrogen

Symbol aH

AtomicMass 1

AtomicNumber 1

MolarMass_g__mol 1.0079

IsANonmetal true

FirstIonizationEnergy_kJ__mol 1312.0

MicroscopicThermalNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b .294

MicroscopicThermalNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 28.966

MicroscopicFastNeutronCaptureCrossSection_b 3.96e-5

MicroscopicFastNeutronScatteringCrossSection_b 3.99

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralCaptureCrossSection_b .149

MicroscopicResonanceIntegralScatteringCrossSection_b 240.23

SolarAbundance 1e-2

Emission Hydrogen

Fusiles.txt

`Material Helium-3 (Fusion Reactant)`

Elements He-3

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 125

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 1304827073

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

MeltingPoint_K .95

BoilingPoint_K 4.222

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 5193.12

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K .1513

Viscosity_Pa_s .000019

Resistivity_Ohm_m 1e-8

Material Metastable Helium

Elements He

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 300

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 1600

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

MeltingPoint_K 1.2

BoilingPoint_K 600

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 5193.12

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 72.4

Viscosity_Pa_s .000019

RelativePermeability .9999999941

Resistivity_Ohm_m 1

RefractiveIndex Helium

Material Exhaust Helium

Elements He

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 70.85

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 1815

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 5193.12

RefractiveIndex Helium

Material Boron-11 (Fusion Reactant)

Elements B

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 2080

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 192681203

MeltingPoint_K 2349

BoilingPoint_K 4200

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 27.4

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 1025.62

Viscosity_Pa_s 1.77e-4

RefractiveIndex Boron

Dissociation

Products Monatomic Boron

ProductCounts 1

Ions.txt

`Material Electron (Product)`

Elements e-

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 10

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 203.3

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 14.01

BoilingPoint_K 20.28

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 20636.15

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 1815

Viscosity_Pa_s 8.76e-6

RelativePermeability .9999999751

DielectricStrength_MV__m 1.95

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Positron (Product)

Elements e+

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 10

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 203.3

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 14.01

BoilingPoint_K 20.28

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 20636.15

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 1815

Viscosity_Pa_s 8.76e-6

RelativePermeability .9999999751

DielectricStrength_MV__m 1.95

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Proton (Product)

Elements p+

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 70.85

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 203.3

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 14.01

BoilingPoint_K 20.28

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 20636.15

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 1815

Viscosity_Pa_s 8.76e-6

RelativePermeability .9999999751

DielectricStrength_MV__m 1.95

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Proton (Fusion Reactant)

Elements p+

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 70.85

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 644811457

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 203.3

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 14.01

BoilingPoint_K 20.28

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 20636.15

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 1815

Viscosity_Pa_s 8.76e-6

RelativePermeability .9999999751

DielectricStrength_MV__m 1.95

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Proton (Antimatter Reactant)

Elements p+

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 70.85

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 60111584093

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 203.3

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 14.01

BoilingPoint_K 20.28

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 20636.15

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 1815

Viscosity_Pa_s 8.76e-6

RelativePermeability .9999999751

DielectricStrength_MV__m 1.95

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Antiproton (Antimatter Reactant)

Elements p-

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 70.85

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 60111584093

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 203.3

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 14.01

BoilingPoint_K 20.28

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 20636.15

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 1815

Viscosity_Pa_s 8.76e-6

RelativePermeability .9999999751

DielectricStrength_MV__m 1.95

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Proton (Fusion Reactant Monopropellant)

Elements p+

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 70.85

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 644811457

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 203.3

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 14.01

BoilingPoint_K 20.28

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 20636.15

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 1815

Viscosity_Pa_s 8.76e-6

RelativePermeability .9999999751

DielectricStrength_MV__m 1.95

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Metallic Hydrogen

Elements H

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 700

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 217.88995

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 435.7799

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 14.01

BoilingPoint_K 20.28

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 14310

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K .1085

Viscosity_Pa_s 8.76e-6

RelativePermeability .9999999751

DielectricStrength_MV__m 1.95

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Deuterium (Fusion Reactant)

Elements D

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 162.4

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 23341731

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 160.788

MeltingPoint_K 18.73

BoilingPoint_K 23.67

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K .13007

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 10327.18

Viscosity_Pa_s 12.6e-6

RefractiveIndex Deuterium

Material Deuterium (Fusion Reactant Monopropellant)

Elements D

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 162.4

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 23341731

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 160.788

MeltingPoint_K 18.73

BoilingPoint_K 23.67

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K .13007

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 10327.18

Viscosity_Pa_s 12.6e-6

RefractiveIndex Deuterium

Material Tritium (Fusion Reactant)

Elements T

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 220

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 197052953

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 446.67

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 0

BulkModulus_GPa .1130

MeltingPoint_K 20.62

BoilingPoint_K 25.04

ThermalConductivity_W__m_K .13007

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 5200

Viscosity_Pa_s 12.6e-6

RefractiveIndex Hydrogen

Material Monatomic Boron

Elements B

ElementCount 1

Density_kg__m3 771

EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 560.0

BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 0

GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 516.0

SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 2059.01

RefractiveIndex Boron

__Links__Deuterium + Helium-3 Fusion ( The Astronomer )

Boron-11 + Proton Fusion ( nerd1000 )

Metallic Hydrogen ( The Astronomer )

Bottom Quark Quarksplosion ( The Astronomer )

Metastable Helium ( RiftandRend )

Monopole Engine Efficiency ( Kerr )

__Tutorial: Fusion__**ChemicalReaction**Deuterium Helium-3 Fusion

**Reactants**Rocket Deuterium Rocket Helium-3

**ReactantCounts**1 2

**Products**Hydrogen Helium

**ProductCounts**1 2

//

*do not forget that the 'hydrogen' here is a placeholder of proton. As hydrogen is diatomic, make sure you multiple other reactants and products with two*.

**ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol**2122677.249

//

*some data can be found here. Convert the eV into J (multiply with 1.602176565e-19), then divide by 1,000 to get kJ, then multiply it with Avogadro's number (6.022140857e+23)*.

**AutoignitionTemperature_K**232100000

//

*fusion temp*.

**CharacteristicLength_m**50 //

*does not affect the reaction, but the length of the chamber*.

**Material**Rocket Deuterium

**Elements**D

**ElementCount**2

**Density_kg__m3**162.4

**EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol**841173575.55

//

*some data can be found here. Convert the eV into J (multiply with 1.602176565e-19), then divide by 1,000 to get kJ, then multiply it with Avogadro's number (6.022140857e+23). Make sure that the sum of both reactants' value equals the value of the number you've just calculated*.

**BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol**443.3197

**GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol**0

**MeltingPoint_K**18.73

**BoilingPoint_K**23.67

**ThermalConductivity_W__m_K**.13007

**SpecificHeat_J__kg_K**5200

**Viscosity_Pa_s**12.6e-6

**RefractiveIndex**Deuterium

**Dissociation**

**Products**Monatomic Deuterium

**ProductCounts**2