
Post by Rocket Witch on Aug 16, 2017 3:59:38 GMT
I guess it tastes better though? Edible radioisotopes — is this where superpowers come from? I had another idea, since stock sodium is liquid and you made sodium oxide, it would be a simple matter to add a combustion reaction. First sodium oxide needs an enthalpy of formation, which is conveniently on Wikipedia's list here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_enthalpy_of_formationMaterial Sodium Oxide Elements Na O ElementCount 2 1 Density_kg__m3 2270 EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 414.2 GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 379.1 BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 514 MeltingPoint_K 1405 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 1176.99 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 10.87 ThermalExpansion__K 1.64e6 RefractiveIndex Calcite RoughnessCoefficient .5 Autoignition temp from this safety data: cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/7794ChemicalReaction LOX Sodium Reactants Oxygen Sodium ReactantCounts 1 4 Products Sodium Oxide ProductCounts 2 ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 1.66 AutoignitionTemperature_K 394.26 CharacteristicLength_m 1 Given that sodium only costs 2.22 c/kg, this makes the first economically viable metal propellant. And just look at that glorious gold flame.



Post by RiftandRend on Aug 16, 2017 13:18:32 GMT
SodiumChloride combustion rocket next?



Post by someusername6 on Aug 17, 2017 2:17:41 GMT



Post by Rocket Witch on Aug 17, 2017 3:03:47 GMT
It was a placeholder assumed to be a typical sort of value for metals (after aluminium and lithium which were previously done). I'll update it.



Post by The Astronomer on Aug 17, 2017 3:05:13 GMT
Caesium + water rockets next?



Post by someusername6 on Aug 17, 2017 3:43:53 GMT
It was a placeholder assumed to be a typical sort of value for metals (after aluminium and lithium which were previously done). I'll update it. Nitpicking, but two more properties just to make it a bit more accurate  Gibbs free energy of formation (from NIST janaf, kinetics.nist.gov/janaf/html/Na012.html) at 379.1 kJ / mol, and bond dissociation energy (estimated from the usual source) at 514 kJ / mol. The Astronomer : Cesium and Water is a bit more difficult to model, but I'm getting Cesium and Oxygen? Most sketchy part is the autoignition temperature  I just took from wikipedia that Caesium is "highly pyrophoric" and "reacts with water at 116 C" to set that as the autoignition temperature. Other properties from wikipedia or NIST, again ( kinetics.nist.gov/kinetics/ReactionSearch?r0=7440462&r1=7782447&r2=0&r3=0&r4=0&p0=12018610&p1=0&p2=0&p3=0&p4=0&expandResults=true%) Then: Material Caesium Oxide Elements Cs O ElementCount 2 1 Density_kg__m3 4650 GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 105.53 EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 345.8 BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 594 MeltingPoint_K 763 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 269.29 ChemicalReaction LOX Caesium Reactants Oxygen Caesium ReactantCounts 1 4 Products Caesium Oxide ProductCounts 2 ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 2.07 AutoignitionTemperature_K 157.5 CharacteristicLength_m 1 And then... it ain't Sodium.



Post by The Astronomer on Aug 17, 2017 4:05:40 GMT
It was a placeholder assumed to be a typical sort of value for metals (after aluminium and lithium which were previously done). I'll update it. Nitpicking, but two more properties just to make it a bit more accurate  Gibbs free energy of formation (from NIST janaf, kinetics.nist.gov/janaf/html/Na012.html) at 379.1 kJ / mol, and bond dissociation energy (estimated from the usual source) at 514 kJ / mol. The Astronomer : Cesium and Water is a bit more difficult to model, but I'm getting Cesium and Oxygen? Most sketchy part is the autoignition temperature  I just took from wikipedia that Caesium is "highly pyrophoric" and "reacts with water at 116 C" to set that as the autoignition temperature. Other properties from wikipedia or NIST, again ( kinetics.nist.gov/kinetics/ReactionSearch?r0=7440462&r1=7782447&r2=0&r3=0&r4=0&p0=12018610&p1=0&p2=0&p3=0&p4=0&expandResults=true%) Then: Material Caesium Oxide Elements Cs O ElementCount 2 1 Density_kg__m3 4650 GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 105.53 EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 345.8 BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 594 MeltingPoint_K 763 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 269.29 ChemicalReaction LOX Caesium Reactants Oxygen Caesium ReactantCounts 1 4 Products Caesium Oxide ProductCounts 2 ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 2.07 AutoignitionTemperature_K 157.5 CharacteristicLength_m 1 And then... it ain't Sodium. Oh. I forgot that cesium atoms are very heavy. That sucks.



Post by Rocket Witch on Sept 30, 2017 19:13:01 GMT
Got a standalone expansion to sodium combustion that combines it with fluorine to produce toothpaste. Performance is very similar to fluorinediborane. Data\Materials\Ceramics.txt Material Sodium Fluoride Elements Na F ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 2558 EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 573.6 GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 546.3 BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 481 MeltingPoint_K 1266 BoilingPoint_K 1977 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 1115.1 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 3.746 ThermalExpansion__K 36e6 RefractiveIndex Calcite RoughnessCoefficient .5 Data\ChemicalReactions.txt ChemicalReaction Fluorine Sodium Reactants Fluorine Sodium ReactantCounts 1 1 Products Sodium Fluoride ProductCounts 1 AutoignitionTemperature_K 394.26 CharacteristicLength_m 1 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_fluoridewww.espimetals.com/index.php/onlinecatalog/195sodiumfluorideSecond source also provides the following mechanical properties, which won't be used here for now in the absence of tensile strength data, but I will note them in case the page disappears in the future: Young's Modulus: 79.01 GPa Shear Modulus: 12.7 GPa Bulk Modulus: 47.9 GPa Poisson Ratio: 0.326



Post by Enderminion on Oct 1, 2017 2:46:50 GMT
Got a standalone expansion to sodium combustion that combines it with fluorine to produce toothpaste. Performance is very similar to fluorinediborane. Data\Materials\Ceramics.txt Material Sodium Fluoride Elements Na F ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 2558 EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 573.6 BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 481 MeltingPoint_K 1266 BoilingPoint_K 1977 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 1115.1 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 3.746 ThermalExpansion__K 36e6 RefractiveIndex Calcite RoughnessCoefficient .5 Data\ChemicalReactions.txt ChemicalReaction Fluorine Sodium Reactants Fluorine Sodium ReactantCounts 1 1 Products Sodium Fluoride ProductCounts 1 ActivationEnergy_kJ__mol 15 AutoignitionTemperature_K 394.26 CharacteristicLength_m 1 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_fluoridewww.espimetals.com/index.php/onlinecatalog/195sodiumfluorideSecond source also provides the following mechanical properties, which won't be used here for now in the absence of tensile strength data, but I will note them in case the page disappears in the future: Young's Modulus: 79.01 GPa Shear Modulus: 12.7 GPa Bulk Modulus: 47.9 GPa Poisson Ratio: 0.326 that is mouthwash, not toothpaste



Post by Rocket Witch on Oct 7, 2017 3:04:24 GMT
SodiumChloride combustion rocket next? ChemicalReaction Chlorine Sodium Reactants Chlorine Sodium ReactantCounts 1 1 Products Sodium Chloride ProductCounts 1 AutoignitionTemperature_K 394.26 CharacteristicLength_m 1 Material Sodium Chloride Elements Na Cl ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 2165 EnthalpyOfFormation_kJ__mol 411.12 GibbsFreeEnergyOfFormation_kJ__mol 384.1 BondDissociationEnergy_kJ__mol 410 MeltingPoint_K 1074 BoilingPoint_K 1686 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 629.5 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 6.06 ThermalExpansion__K 3.98e5 RefractiveIndex Calcite RoughnessCoefficient .5 Edit: RiftandRend bigbombr this now uses data consistent with the NaCl someusername6 posted earlier in this thread. I forgot that was done already. Also added Gibbs and bond dissociation energies.



Post by Rocket Witch on Oct 26, 2017 21:47:46 GMT
Part 3: Cheaper, Cleaner and EnergierI found a lovely table here on page 13 listing the necessary properties to implement various new reactor fuels: wwwpub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/IAEATHPH_web.pdfI'm sure apophys Electrics will be interested. Contents Uranium carbides and nitrides. Denser with higher fuel content per mole, but lower melting points (in nitride's case, only slightly lower).  Plutonium dioxides, carbides and nitrides. Now plutonium reactors might be viable?  Thorium dioxide. Only appears in RTG list.  20% plutonium MOX, used to recycle often weaponsgrade plutonium.  20% thorium MOX, used to breed thorium232 into uranium233.  5% gadolinium MOX. Patent US5089210A suggests this is employed as a burnable neutron absorber; possibly breeds natural uranium (mostly 238) into plutonium239. Uranium 233 & 235Material U233 Carbide Elements U233 C ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 13630 MeltingPoint_K 2793 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 240 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 23 ThermalExpansion__K 10.5e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 250e8
Material U235 Carbide Elements U235 C ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 13630 MeltingPoint_K 2793 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 240 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 23 ThermalExpansion__K 10.5e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 250e8
Material U233 Nitride Elements U233 N ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 14420 MeltingPoint_K 3123 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 238 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 20.9 ThermalExpansion__K 7.5e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 146e8
Material U235 Nitride Elements U235 N ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 14420 MeltingPoint_K 3123 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 238 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 20.9 ThermalExpansion__K 7.5e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 146e8
Plutonium 239 & 241Material Pu239 Dioxide Elements Pu239 O ElementCount 1 2 Density_kg__m3 11440 MeltingPoint_K 2663 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 344 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 2.2 ThermalExpansion__K 6.7e6
Material Pu241 Dioxide Elements Pu241 O ElementCount 1 2 Density_kg__m3 11440 MeltingPoint_K 2663 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 344 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 2.2 ThermalExpansion__K 6.7e6
Material Pu239 Carbide Elements Pu239 C ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 13500 MeltingPoint_K 1923 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 165 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 16 ThermalExpansion__K 28e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 120e8
Material Pu241 Carbide Elements Pu241 C ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 13500 MeltingPoint_K 1923 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 165 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 16 ThermalExpansion__K 28e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 120e8
Material Pu239 Nitride Elements Pu239 N ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 14400 MeltingPoint_K 2823 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 239 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 15 ThermalExpansion__K 12.5e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 1000e8
Material Pu241 Nitride Elements Pu241 N ElementCount 1 1 Density_kg__m3 14400 MeltingPoint_K 2823 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 239 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 15 ThermalExpansion__K 12.5e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 1000e8 Thorium 232Material Th232 Dioxide Elements Th232 O ElementCount 1 2 Density_kg__m3 10600 MeltingPoint_K 2923 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 266 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 3.2 ThermalExpansion__K 8.9e6 Resistivity_Ohm_m 6e5 Mixed Oxide FuelsMaterial MOX Uranium Plutonium Elements U238 U235 Pu239 O ElementCount .7976 .0024 .2 2 Density_kg__m3 11070 MeltingPoint_K 3023 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 321 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 2.6 ThermalExpansion__K 9.1e6
Material MOX Uranium Thorium Elements U238 U235 Th232 O ElementCount .7976 .0024 .2 2 Density_kg__m3 10140 MeltingPoint_K 3553 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 317 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 2.1 ThermalExpansion__K 11e6
Material MOX Uranium Gadolinium Elements U238 U235 Gd157 O ElementCount .94715 .00285 .05 2 Density_kg__m3 10370 MeltingPoint_K 2873 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 365 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 2.35 ThermalExpansion__K 10.5e6



Post by Enderminion on Oct 27, 2017 0:18:40 GMT
no Plutonium Borides?



Post by Rocket Witch on Oct 27, 2017 12:19:51 GMT
The boron content in borides is very high (66% as these elements form diborides) given its nature as a neutron poison, which may preclude sustenance of a useful reaction. Wiki page for uranium boride says it is used as a means of disabling waste material. There is a page on uranium borides but no material data. Searching for plutonium boride doesn't seem to offer anything. That said, turns out literally only density and melting point are needed for a nuclear fuel to be usable ingame. This opens up uranium diboride and maybe other experimental compounds. Data from Wikipedia, which corresponds exactly with Matweb. Material U233 Diboride Elements U233 B ElementCount 1 2 Density_kg__m3 12700 MeltingPoint_K 2700
Material U235 Diboride Elements U235 B ElementCount 1 2 Density_kg__m3 12700 MeltingPoint_K 2700
Material Depleted Uranium Diboride Elements U238 B ElementCount 1 2 Density_kg__m3 12700 MeltingPoint_K 2700



Post by Rocket Witch on Oct 27, 2017 15:29:23 GMT
Today, some liquid metals and eutectics from the same PDF, covering reactor coolants not already modded.
Material Lead Lithium Elements Pb Li ElementCount .83 .17 Density_kg__m3 9326 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 250 MeltingPoint_K 508 BoilingPoint_K 1950 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 40 Viscosity_Pa_s 1.3e3
Material NaKCs Elements Na K Cs ElementCount .2 .7 .1 Density_kg__m3 1235 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 384 MeltingPoint_K 195 BoilingPoint_K 1850 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 13.7 Viscosity_Pa_s 1.54e3
Material Liquid Indium Elements In ElementCount 1 Density_kg__m3 7010 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 238 MeltingPoint_K 429.32 BoilingPoint_K 2353 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 48 Viscosity_Pa_s 1e3
Material Liquid Bismuth Elements Bi ElementCount 1 Density_kg__m3 9854 SpecificHeat_J__kg_K 150 MeltingPoint_K 544 BoilingPoint_K 1825 ThermalConductivity_W__m_K 14.2 Viscosity_Pa_s 1.3e3
 Viscocity of liquid indium isn't available, so only the order of magnitude for liquid metals is used.  Approximate NaKCs composition guessed.  Boiling points of NaKCs and lead lithium estimated.



Post by Rocket Witch on Oct 28, 2017 1:32:50 GMT

